This section includes information and resources about the benefits of recycling wastewater, available technologies, and more. For information about direct potable reuse, click here.
BDOC as a Performance Measure for Organics Removal in Groundwater Recharge of Recycled Water
The focus of this 60-page NWRI Independent Advisory Panel Report, published in September 2012 for the California Department of Health Services, is on the suitability of using one water quality monitoring tool over another. Since the 1970s, total organic carbon (TOC) has been used to measure the concentration of organic matter in water to determine the effectiveness of organics removal during the water purification process. However, biodegradable dissolved organic carbon (BDOC) has been identified as a possible alternative to TOC for groundwater recharge projects that include the artificial percolation process of surface water spreading. Click here for more information about the panel and report, or click here to download the report (580-KB PDF).
Review of California's Water Recycling Criteria for Agricultural Irrigation
This 172-page NWRI Independent Advisory Panel Report, published in September 2012 for the California Department of Health Services, was developed in response to increased interest in expanding the amount of recycled water used for agricultural purposes. It specifically addressed the risk of exposure and infection from waterborne pathogens, such as Cryptosporidium and E. coli, due to the irrigation of a wide variety of food crops using recycled water. Click here for more information about the panel and report, or
click here to download the panel report (2.45-MB PDF).
NWRI Ultraviolet Disinfection Guidelines for Drinking Water and Water Reuse (Third Edition)
This 100-page document provides regulatory agencies and water and wastewater utilities with a common basis for evaluating and implementing ultraviolet (UV) disinfection, which is a water treatment technology that can inactivate or remove many waterborne pathogens. The Guidelines were revised by Dr. Robert Emerick and Dr. George Tchobanoglous in 2012. Click here for more information.
National Research Council Report on "Water Reuse: Potential for Expanding the Nation's Water Supply Through Reuse of Municipal Wastewater
This 262-page report, published in 2012, presents treatment options available to mitigate water quality issues in reclaimed water. Included arerecommended adjustments to the federal regulatory framework to enhance public health protection for both planned and unplanned reuse and increase public confidence in water reuse. Click here for more information or to purchase the report.
NWRI White Paper on "Views on the Status of Water Recycling 2030"
The 2009 NWRI White Paper on "Views of the Status of Water Recycling 2030: Recommendations of California's Recycled Water Task Force"provides a review of stakeholder opinions regarding implementation of recommendations made the 2003 Task Force Report, lessons learned, obstacles, new issues and others. Click here to download the white paper.
California Department of Public Health: Recycled Water Regulations and Guidelines