This section includes information and resources about the benefits of recycling wastewater, available technologies, and more. For information about direct potable reuse, click here.
Shivaji Deshmukh of the West Basin Municipal Water District presented on "Improving Recycled Water Production through Technologic Improvements" at the 2012 NWRI Clarke Prize Conference on "Research and Innovations in Urban Water Sustainability." Watch the video on YouTube.
In 1993, NWRI produced the "Water from Water" video series. "Desalinatino & Recycling: New Century, New Sources" is the first video program from the seires. In order to increase the water supply, water can be recycled through desalination - the main discussion of the video. Watch the video on YouTube.
In 1993, NWRI produced the "Water from Water" video series. "Recycling" is the second video program from the seires. The video points out that the most difficult challenge to overcome is the public's perception of using recycled water. Watch the video on YouTube.
CLARKE PRIZE LECTURES
Elimination of Eutrophication through Resource Recovery
By James Barnard, Black & Veatch Corporation
James Barnard presented the 2007 Clarke Lecture on "Elimination of Eutrophication through Resource Recovery."
The Global Challenge for Adequate and Safe Water
By Menachem Elimelech, Yale University
Menachem (Meny) Elimelech presented the 2005 Clarke Lecture on "The Global Challenge for Adequate and Safe Water."
The Importance of Decentralized Wastewater Management in the Twenty-First Century
By George Tchobanoglous, University of California, Davis
George Tchobanoglous presented the 2003 Clarke Lecture on "The Importance of Decentralized Wastewater Management in the Twenty-First Century."
Fit Water for the Future
By Walter Weber, University of Michigan at Ann Arbor
Walt Weber presented the 1996 Clarke Lecture on "Fit Water for the Future: The Requisite Exercise of Social Discipline, Competent Technology, Responsible Engineering, and the MEAD AORTA Agenda."
BDOC as a Performance Measure for Organics Removal in Groundwater Recharge of Recycled Water
The focus of this 60-page NWRI Independent Advisory Panel Report, published in September 2012 for the California Department of Health Services, is on the suitability of using one water quality monitoring tool over another. Since the 1970s, total organic carbon (TOC) has been used to measure the concentration of organic matter in water to determine the effectiveness of organics removal during the water purification process. However, biodegradable dissolved organic carbon (BDOC) has been identified as a possible alternative to TOC for groundwater recharge projects that include the artificial percolation process of surface water spreading. Click here for more information about the panel and report, or click here to download the report (580-KB PDF).
Review of California's Water Recycling Criteria for Agricultural Irrigation
This 172-page NWRI Independent Advisory Panel Report, published in September 2012 for the California Department of Health Services, was developed in response to increased interest in expanding the amount of recycled water used for agricultural purposes. It specifically addressed the risk of exposure and infection from waterborne pathogens, such as Cryptosporidium and E. coli, due to the irrigation of a wide variety of food crops using recycled water. Click here for more information about the panel and report, or
click here to download the panel report (2.45-MB PDF).
NWRI Ultraviolet Disinfection Guidelines for Drinking Water and Water Reuse (Third Edition)
This 100-page document provides regulatory agencies and water and wastewater utilities with a common basis for evaluating and implementing ultraviolet (UV) disinfection, which is a water treatment technology that can inactivate or remove many waterborne pathogens. The Guidelines were revised by Dr. Robert Emerick and Dr. George Tchobanoglous in 2012. Click here for more information.
National Research Council Report on "Water Reuse: Potential for Expanding the Nation's Water Supply Through Reuse of Municipal Wastewater
This 262-page report, published in 2012, presents treatment options available to mitigate water quality issues in reclaimed water. Included arerecommended adjustments to the federal regulatory framework to enhance public health protection for both planned and unplanned reuse and increase public confidence in water reuse. Click here for more information or to purchase the report.
NWRI White Paper on "Views on the Status of Water Recycling 2030"
The 2009 NWRI White Paper on "Views of the Status of Water Recycling 2030: Recommendations of California's Recycled Water Task Force"provides a review of stakeholder opinions regarding implementation of recommendations made the 2003 Task Force Report, lessons learned, obstacles, new issues and others. Click here to download the white paper.
Water Reuse Economic Framework
Stratus Consultants, 2004
NWRI facilitated the "Water Reuse Economic Framework" nominal group technique workshop for Stratus Consulting Inc. and was part of a broader research project funded by the WateReuse Foundation.
The workshop report documents the results of the efforts of the 20 participants attending the workshop who provided their expertise to answer the question: What are the essential components of an economic framework that would promote broad recognition of the full range of services and benefits that water reuse provides?
This question was intended to prompt discussions among the workshop participants about not only the types of benefits, costs, and services, but also to explore how to build meaningful bridges by embracing stakeholder perspectives of value. One of the many benefits of water reuse is that it’s a viable option as a water supply, especially when considering drought emergencies.
California Department of Public Health: Recycled Water Regulations and Guidelines